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建筑英语翻译

时间:2019-07-23 来源:极品菜鸟网
 

篇一:建筑类英文及翻译

外文原文出处: Geotechnical, Geological, and Earthquake Engineering, 1, Volume 10, Seismic Risk Assessment and Retrofitting, Pages 329-342

补充垂直支撑对建筑物抗震加固

摘要:大量的钢筋混凝土建筑物在整个世界地震活跃地区有共同的缺陷。弱柱,在一个或多个事故中,由于横向变形而失去垂直承载力。这篇文章提出一个策略关于补充安装垂直支撑来防止房子的倒塌。这个策略是使用在一个风险的角度上来研究最近实际可行的性能。混凝土柱、动力失稳的影响、

多样循环冗余的影响降低了建筑系统和

组件的强度。比如用建筑物来说明这个

策略的可行性。

1、背景的介绍:

建筑受地震震动,有可能达到一定程

度上的动力失稳,因为从理论上说侧面

上有无限的位移。许多建筑物,然而,

在较低的震动强度下就失去竖向荷载的支撑,这就是横向力不稳定的原因(见图16.1)。提出了这策略的目的是为了确定建筑物

很可能马上在竖向荷载作用下而倒塌,

通过补充一些垂直支撑来提高建筑物的

安全。维护竖向荷载支撑的能力,来改

变水平力稳定临界失稳的机理,重视可

能出现微小的侧向位移(见图16.2)。

在过去的经验表明,世界各地的地

震最容易受到破坏的是一些无筋的混凝

土框架结构建筑物。这经常是由于一些

无关紧要的漏洞,引起的全部或一大块地方发生破坏,比如整根梁、柱子和板。去填实上表面来抑制框架的内力,易受影响的底层去吸收大部分的内力和冲力。

这有几种过去被用过的方法可供选择来实施:

1、加密上层结构,可以拆卸和更换一些硬度不够强的材料。

2、加密上层结构,可以隔离一些安装接头上的裂缝,从而阻止对框架结构的影响。

3、底楼,或者地板,可以增加结构新墙。这些措施(项目1、2和3)能有效降低自重,这韧性能满足于一层或多层。然而,所有这些都有困难和干扰。在美国,这些不寻常的代价换来的是超过一半更有价值的建筑。

4、在一些容易受到破坏的柱子裹上钢铁、混凝土、玻璃纤维、或碳纤维。

第四个选项可以增加柱子的强度和延性,这足以降低柱子受到破坏的风险在大多数的建筑物中。这个方案虽然成本比前面低,但是整体性能也会降低,对比较弱的地板破坏会更加集中。加强柱子的强度在美国很流行,但它的成本依旧是很高的。在发展中国家,这些先进的技术对某些种类的加料或加强,还不能够做到随心所欲。

这个程序的提出包含了另一个选择,美国已经运用这个选择用来降低房子倒塌的风险。这个方法是增加垂直支撑,来防止建筑在瞬间竖向荷载作用下就倒塌(见图16.3)。这是为支撑转移做准备的,当

柱子被剪切破坏和剪切衰弱

时。这个补充支撑通常是钢结

构、管道支撑或木材支撑。他

们通常安装在单独的柱子上,

但(图16.3)钢柱也可以被放置

在能承担的水平框架上。这种

技术能有效的降低自重,从而

降低了建筑在瞬间竖向荷载

下就遭到破坏。在水平方向的

强烈震动,产生的不稳定大概很少被想到。补充的安装垂直技撑相对比较便宜。一些有用的空间可能通过安装支撑被影响,可是这是一些微不足道的比较。在美国为建筑安装一些补充支撑现在非常流行。

Supplemental Vertical Support as a Means for Seismic Retrofit of

Buildings

Craig D. Comartin

Geotechnical, Geological, and Earthquake Engineering, 1, Volume 10, Seismic Risk Assessment and Retrofitting, Pages 329-342

Abstract A large number of

concrete buildings in seismically

active areas throughout the world

exhibit a common deficiency.

Weak columns, in one or more

stories, lose vertical load-carrying

capacity as a result of lateral

distortion. This chapter presents a

conceptual strategy for retrofit

comprising the installation of

supplemental vertical supports to

prevent collapse. This procedure utilizes a risk-based perspective based on recent research on the realistic capacity of concrete columns, dynamic instability, and the effects of in-cycle degradation of strength in building systems and components. An example building is used to

illustrate the application of the concept.

1 Introduction and Background

Buildings subject to earthquake shaking have a potential to reach a point of dynamic instability at which they collapse due to theoretically unlimited lateral displacement.

Many buildings, however, lose the ability to support vertical loads and collapse at smaller levels of shaking intensity than that which would otherwise cause lateral dynamic instability (see Fig. 16.1). The procedures proposed here are intended

to identify buildings prone to preemptive vertical load collapse and improve their safety by the installation of supplemental vertical supports. Maintaining the capability to support vertical loads changes the critical collapse mechanism to lateral dynamic stability which occurs at larger and less probable

lateral displacements (see Fig.

16.2).

Experience in past

earthquakes around the world

indicates that concrete frames

哪个医院治疗癫痫病更有效="txt">infilled with ueinforced masoy

(URM) have been particularly

prone to collapse. This most often

is due to a weak first story caused

by the omission of all or a substantial portion of the infill to allow for retail, parking, or other uses conducive toopen spaces. The infill in upper stories restrains frame action and forces the flexible lower floor to absorb most of the energy demand and drift.

There are several alternatives for retrofit strategy that have been implemented in the past:

1. The infill on upper floors could be removed and replaced with less stiff and less strong materials.

2. The infill on upper floors could be isolated from the structure by installing joints with gaps to prevent interaction with the frame.

3. The lower floor, or floors, could be strengthened with new structural walls。These Measures (Items 1, 2, and 3) are effective in reducing the ductility demand in the weak story or stories. However, all of them are costly and intrusive. In the US, it is not unusual for the costs of these types of retrofit to exceed half of the replacement value of the building.

4. Wrap the columns in the weak story with jackets of steel, concrete, fiberglass, or

carbon fiber.

The fourth option can increase both the strength and ductility of the columns enough to reduce the collapse risk for most buildings. The cost is somewhat less than for the first three alternatives; however the overall performance would also be less with more damage focused in the weak floor. Column jacketing is popular in the US, but the costs can still be high. In developing countries, the advanced technologies for some types of jackets may not be readily available.

The procedure proposed here

incorporates another alternative

that has been used in the US to

reduce collapse risk. This strategy

is to provide supplemental vertical

supports designed to prevent

preemptive vertical load collapse

(see Fig. 16.3). These are intended

to support loads that are transferred from shear critical columns as they are damaged and begin to fail. The supplemental supports are typically steel shapes, pipe shoring, or timber shores. They are often installed near individual columns, but also can be placed beneath capable horizontal framing. This technique is effective in reducing collapse risk by avoiding the preemptive vertical collapse mode。The intensity of shaking required for lateral dynamic instability is generally higher and less likely to occur. The installation of supplemental vertical supports is relatively inexpensive. The functional use of the spaces may be affected by the installation, but often this is minor compared to other alternatives. Installations in the US have been made for a very small percentage of the replacement costs for the building.

篇二:建筑学课程英文翻译

素描Sketch

画法几何Descriptive Geometry

建筑初步Introduction of Architecture Design

英语English

高等数学A Advanced Mathematics A

毛泽东思想概论Introduction of Mao Zedong's Thought

试唱与练声 Audition and Singing

建筑设计Architecture Design

法律基础Legal Basis

邓小平理论概论 Introduction of Deng Xiaoping’s theory

建筑力学Engineering Mechanics

室内设计Interior Design

广告学Advertisement

建筑结构选型Building Structure Selection

城市规划原理Principles of Urban Planning

中国古典园林Chinese Traditional Garden

专业外语Professional English

建筑节能Building Energy Saving

建筑物理Architectural physics

建筑施工技术经济管理 Architectural Economics

城市空间结构组织 Spatial Structure of Urban Space

建筑构造Architectural Construction

工程测量Engineering Surveying

中国古代建筑装饰Decorating Art of Traditional Chinese Architecture 室内设计发展史History of Interior Design

湖北哪家医院能治癫痫病="txt">高层建筑设计原理Principles of High Rising Buildings

体育Physical Education

思想品德修养Ideology and Morality of Accomplishment

计算机基础Computer Basic

马克思主义哲学原理Philosophy of Marxism

阴影透视Shade Shadow Perspective

形势与政策 Situation and Policy

马克思主义政治经济学原理Principles of Marxism Political Economics FORTRAN语言FORTRAN Language

色彩Gouache Painting

建筑材料Civil Engineering Materials

建筑设计原理Principles of Building Design

军训Military Training

西方经济学概论Introduction of Western Economics

中国建筑史History of Chinese Architecture

美术史History of Art

计算机辅助设计Computer Aided Design

建筑结构Building Structure

建筑构图原理Principles of Architectural Composition

外国建筑史History of Foreign Architecture

建筑美学Esthetics of Architecture

建筑防火Building Fire Protection

大学生心理卫生Students' Psychological Health 建筑施工Civil Engineering Construction

城市园林绿地规划Planning of Urban Garden and Park 建筑设备Building Equipment

洁净建筑设计原理Renovation of Architecture Elevation 宗教建筑发展史 History of Sacred Buildings

室内空间设计方法Design method of Interior space

近现代建筑人物与介绍Introduction of Modern Architects 城市经济 Urban Economy

篇三:建筑英文翻译

建筑结构中英文翻译(相当于词典)

A

acceptable quality:合格质量

acceptance lot:验收批量

aciera:钢材

admixture:外加剂

against slip coefficient between friction surface of high-strength bolted connection:高强度螺栓摩擦面抗滑移系数

aggregate:骨料

air content:含气量

air-dried timber:气干材

allowable ratio of height to sectional thickness of masoy wall or column:砌体墙、柱容许高厚比

allowable slenderness ratio of steel member:钢构件容许长细比

allowable slenderness ratio of timber compression member:受压木构件容许长细比 allowable stress range of fatigue:疲劳容许应力幅

allowable ultimate tensile strain of reinforcement:钢筋拉应变限值

allowable value of crack width:裂缝宽度容许值

allowable value of deflection of structural member:构件挠度容许值

allowable value of deflection of timber bending member:受弯木构件挠度容许值

allowable value of deformation of steel member:钢构件变形容许值

allowable value of deformation of structural member:构件变形容许值

allowable value of drift angle of earthquake resistant structure:抗震结构层间位移角限值 amplified coefficient of eccentricity:偏心距增大系数

anchorage:锚具

anchorage length of steel bar:钢筋锚固长度

approval analysis during construction stage:施工阶段验算

arch:拱

arch with tie rod:拉捍拱

arch―shaped roof truss:拱形屋架

area of shear plane:剪面面积

area of transformed section:换算截面面积

aseismic design:建筑抗震设计

assembled monolithic concrete structure:装配整体式混凝土结构

automatic welding:自动焊接

auxiliary steel bar:架立钢筋

B

backfilling plate:垫板

balanced depth of compression zone:界限受压区高度

balanced eccentricity:界限偏心距

bar splice:钢筋接头

bark pocket:夹皮

batten plate:缀板

beam:次梁

bearing plane of notch:齿承压面(67)

bearing plate:支承板(52)

bearing stiffener:支承加劲肋(52)

bent-up steel bar:弯起钢筋(35)

block:砌块(43)

block masoy:砌块砌体(44)

block masoy structure:砌块砌体结构(41)

blow hole:气孔(62)

board:板材(65)

bolt:螺栓(54)

bolted connection:(钢结构)螺栓连接(59)

bolted joint:(木结构)螺栓连接(69)

bolted steel structure:螺栓连接钢结构(50)

甘肃癫痫病治疗哪个医院最好 class="txt">bonded prestressed concrete structure:有粘结预应力混凝土结构(24)

bow:顺弯(71)

brake member:制动构件(7)

breadth of wall between windows:窗间墙宽度(46)

brick masoy:砖砌体(44)

brick masoy column:砖砌体柱(42)

brick masoy structure:砖砌体结构(41)

brick masoy wall:砖砌体墙(42)

broad―leaved wood:阔叶树材(65)

building structural materials:建筑结构材料(17)

building structural unit:建筑结构单元(

building structure:建筑结构(2

built―up steel column:格构式钢柱(51

bundled tube structure:成束筒结构(3

burn―through:烧穿(62

butt connection:对接(59

butt joint:对接(70)

butt weld:对接焊缝(60)

C

calculating area of compression member:受压构件计算面积(67)

calculating overturning point:计算倾覆点(46)

calculation of load-carrying capacity of member:构件承载能力计算(10)

camber of structural member:结构构件起拱(22)

cantilever beam :挑梁(42)

cap of reinforced concrete column:钢筋混凝土柱帽(27)

carbonation of concrete:混凝土碳化(30)

cast-in―situ concrete slab column structure :现浇板柱结构

cast-in―situ concrete structure:现浇混凝土结构(25)

cavitation:孔洞(39)

cavity wall:空斗墙(42)

cement:水泥(27)

cement content:水泥含量(38)

cement mortar:水泥砂浆(43)

characteriseic value of live load on floor or roof:楼面、屋面活荷载标准值(14)

characteristi cvalue o fwindload:风荷载标准值(16)

characteristic value of concrete compressive strength:混凝土轴心抗压强度标准值(30) characteristic value of concrete tensile strength:混凝土轴心抗拉标准值(30)

characteristic value of cubic concrete compressive strength:混凝土立方体抗压强度标准值(29) characteristic value of earthquake action:地震作用标准值(16)

characteristic value of horizontal crane load:吊车水平荷载标准值(15)

characteristic value of masoy strength:砌体强度标准值(44)

characteristic value of permanent action・:永久作用标准值(14)

characteristic value of snowload:雪荷载标准值(15)

characteristic value of strength of steel:钢材强度标准值(55)

characteristic value of strength of steel bar:钢筋强度标准值(31)

characteristic value of uniformly distributed live load:均布活标载标准值(14)

characteristic value of variable action:可变作用标准值(14)

characteristic value of vertical crane load:吊车竖向荷载标准值(15)

charaeteristic value of material strength:材料强度标准值(18)

checking section of log structural member・,:原木构件计算截面(67)

chimney:烟囱(3)

circular double―layer suspended cable:圆形双层悬索(6)

circular single―layer suspended cable:圆形单层悬索(6)

circumferential weld:环形焊缝(60)

classfication for earthquake―resistance of buildings・:建筑结构抗震设防类别(9)

clear height:净高(21)

clincher:扒钉(?0)

coefficient of equivalent bending moment of eccentrically loaded steel memher(beam-column) :钢压弯构件等效弯矩系数(58)

cold bend inspection of steelbar:冷弯试验(39)

cold drawn bar:冷拉钢筋(28)

cold drawn wire:冷拉钢丝(29)

cold―formed thin―walled sectionsteel:冷弯薄壁型钢(53)

cold-formed thin-walled steel structure・‘:冷弯薄壁型钢结构(50)

cold―rolled deformed bar:冷轧带肋钢筋(28)

column bracing:柱间支撑(7)

combination value of live load on floor or roof:楼面、屋面活荷载组合值(15)

compaction:密实度(37)

compliance control:合格控制(23)

composite brick masoy member:组合砖砌体构件(42)

composite floor system:组合楼盖(8)

composite floor with profiled steel sheet:压型钢板楼板(8)

composite mortar:混合砂浆(43)

composite roof truss:组合屋架(8)

compostle member:组合构件(8)

compound stirrup:复合箍筋(36)

compression 癫痫病治疗最好的医院member with large eccentricity・:大偏心受压构件(32)

compression member with small eccentricity・:小偏心受压构件(32)

compressive strength at an angle with slope of grain:斜纹承压强度(66) compressive strength perpendicular to grain:横纹承压强度(66)

concentration of plastic deformation:塑性变形集中(9)

conceptual earthquake―resistant design:建筑抗震概念设计(9)

concrete:混凝土(17)

concrete column:混凝土柱(26)

concrete consistence:混凝土稠度(37)

concrete floded―plate structure:混凝土折板结构(26)

concrete foundation:混凝土基础(27)

concrete mix ratio:混凝土配合比(38)

concrete wall:混凝土墙(27)

concrete-filled steel tubular member:钢管混凝土构件(8)

conifer:针叶树材(65)

coniferous wood:针叶树材(65)

connecting plate:连接板(52)

connection:连接(21)

connections of steel structure:钢结构连接(59)

connections of timber structure:木结构连接(68)

consistency of mortar:砂浆稠度(48)

constant cross―section column:等截面柱(7)

construction and examination concentrated load:施工和检修集中荷载(15) continuous weld:连续焊缝(60)

core area of section:截面核芯面积(33)

core tube supported structure:核心筒悬挂结构(3)

corrosion of steel bar:钢筋锈蚀(39)

coupled wall:连肢墙(12)

coupler:连接器(37)

coupling wall―beam :连梁(12)

coupling wall―column...:墙肢(12)

coursing degree of mortar:砂浆分层度(48)

cover plate:盖板(52)

covered electrode:焊条(54)

crack:裂缝(?0)

crack resistance:抗裂度(31)

crack width:裂缝宽度(31)

crane girder:吊车梁(?)

crane load:吊车荷载(15)

creep of concrete:混凝土徐变(30)

crook:横弯(71)

cross beam:井字梁(6)

cup:翘弯

curved support:弧形支座(51)

cylindrical brick arch:砖筒拱(43)

D

decay:腐朽(71)

decay prevention of timber structure:木结构防腐(70)

defect in timber:木材缺陷(70)

deformation analysis:变形验算(10)

degree of gravity vertical for structure or structural member・:结构构件垂直度(40) degree of gravity vertical forwall surface:墙面垂直度(49)

degree of plainness for structural memer:构件平整度(40)

degree of plainness for wall surface:墙面平整度(49)

depth of compression zone:受压区高度(32)

depth of neutral axis:中和轴高度(32)

depth of notch:齿深(67)

design of building structures:建筑结构设计(8)

design value of earthquake-resistant strength of materials:材料抗震强度设计值(1 design value of load―carrying capacity of members・:构件承载能力设计值(1 designations 0f steel:钢材牌号(53

designvalue of material strength:材料强度设计值(1

destructive test:破损试验(40

detailing reintorcement:构造配筋(35

detailing requirements:构造要求(22

diamonding:菱形变形(71)

diaphragm:横隔板(52

dimensional errors:尺寸偏差(39)

distribution factor of snow pressure:屋面积雪分布系数

dogspike:扒钉(70)

double component concrete column:双肢柱(26)

dowelled joint:销连接(69)

down-stayed composite beam:下撑式组合粱(8)

ductile frame:延性框架(2)

dynamic design:动态设计(8)

E

earthquake-resistant design:抗震设计(9:

earthquake-resistant detailing requirements:抗震构造要求(22)

effective area of fillet weld:角焊缝有效面积(57)

effective depth of section:截面有效高度(33)

effective diameter of bolt or high-strength bolt・:螺栓(或高强度螺栓)有效直径(57) effective height:计算高度(21)

effective length:计算长度(21)

建筑类英文及翻译外文原文出处:Geotechnical,Geological,andEarthquakeEngineering,1,Volume10,SeismicRiskAssessmentandRetrofitting,Pages329-342补充垂直支撑对建筑物抗震加固...

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